Waste treatment methods (using waste (biomass) to produce charcoal, tar and coal gas) Domestic and foreign methods for the treatment of municipal solid waste are mainly sanitary landfills, high-temperature composting and incineration, etc. The proportion of these three main waste treatment methods is due to Geographical environment; garbage composition, economic development level and other factors are different, and Table 2-1 compares the three treatment methods.
Due to the complex composition of urban waste and the influence of economic development level, structure, natural conditions and traditional habits, the treatment of municipal waste in foreign countries is generally different according to national conditions. Often, each region in a country also adopts different treatment. It is difficult to have a unified model (Table 2-1). But in the end, they are all harmless, resource-reducing, and reduction-based. From the perspective of application technology, foreign countries are mainly engaged in landfill, incineration, composting, and comprehensive utilization. The degree of mechanization is relatively high, and systems and complete sets of equipment are formed. From the perspective of a variety of treatment methods in foreign countries, there are the following trends: (1) Due to the growing shortage of energy and land resources in industrialized countries, the proportion of incineration disposal is gradually increasing; (2) Landfilling method has always occupied a large proportion as the ultimate disposal method of garbage; (3) Agriculture Most of the developing countries are based on compost; (4) Other new technologies, such as pyrolysis, reclamation, and landscaping, are continuously making progress.
Incineration is a widely used municipal waste treatment technology in the world. Large-scale waste incineration treatment systems equipped with heat recovery and utilization devices are gradually becoming the mainstream of incineration disposal due to the requirements of energy recovery. Foreign industrialized countries, especially Japan and Western Europe, are generally committed to promoting the application of waste incineration technology. Extensive application of foreign incineration technology, in addition to benefits from economic development, strong investment, high waste heat value, mainly in the incineration process and equipment are mature and advanced. Many famous companies in the world have invested in the development of incineration technology and equipment, and the main equipment and accessories have been fixed and matched. The foreign industrialized countries are mainly committed to improving the various incinerators and developing new incinerators, which will make them more efficient, energy-saving, low-cost, and low-pollution. The degree of automation is getting higher and higher.
The treatment of urban waste in China started relatively late. By the end of 1992, the amount of garbage and excrement removed nationwide had reached 112.64 million tons, while there were only 371 waste and manure-free treatment plants with a total capacity of 71,501 t/d. In recent years, according to the actual situation, various regions have started to take measures and plans to carry out beneficial explorations of urban waste treatment technologies. The cities of Hangzhou, Changzhou, Tianjin, Mianyang, Beijing, and Wuhan learned the experience of foreign municipal waste treatment technologies and designed their own garbage composting production lines with Chinese characteristics; the success of city and municipal waste incineration plants in Shenzhen and Leshan, etc. It also provided experience for incineration technologies in various cities; Shenyang, Anshan, and other cities implemented unified management of hospital waste, focused on incineration, and stepped out of a new path for special waste disposal.